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Architecture’s commitment to environmental conservation and preservation has become increasingly entrenched in recent years. Because of recent technological breakthroughs, the relationship between architecture and energy is now linked to both passive strategies and performance. Solar design is transforming cities and architecture all over the world to combat global climate change and greenhouse gas emissions.

Why is there such a strong emphasis on this concept?

Architects have long strived to reduce the energy required to cool, heat, ventilate, and light buildings. Historically, solar design has focused on principles like light and passive techniques but has recently evolved to include operational and structural embodied energy. Without proper balance, establishing an energy-efficient structure has become increasingly challenging, as adding elements that reduce energy use may paradoxically increase the number of energy-intensive materials necessary to build it.

Today, architects and designers worldwide are collaborating to reduce the energy consumption of new buildings, and the emphasis on solar energy and environmentally friendly design has grown to encompass the reduction of embodied carbon in new structures as well. The American Institute of Architects stated in its Resolution for Urgent and Sustaining Climate Action that “until the zero-net-carbon practice becomes an accepted standard among its members,” the AIA “prioritizes and supports urgent climate action as a health, safety, and welfare issue.” The following articles and projects discuss solar design, photovoltaic technology, and other recent innovations that are influencing how we think about and plan for the future of the built environment as part of our ongoing investigation of the relationship between architecture and energy.

Design principles of solar photovoltaic system

In general, the following are the design concepts for solar photovoltaic systems: under the premise of energy-producing adequate power to meet the demand, the system’s economics is the most significant component. There are two types of design for solar power generation systems: software design and hardware design. Typically, software design is accomplished first, followed by generic hardware development.

This software design package includes aspects such as the investigation of the load and the estimation of load power consumption, the calculation of solar cell surface matrices’ radiation and the optimization match between them, the best calculation of square angle, the prediction of system performance, and the analysis of cost-effectiveness, among other things.

The hardware design process includes the selection and design of the load, the selection, and the design of solar cells and batteries. The design of components and support for the array. The selection and design of the inverter, and the selection and design of the control and measurement system.

Design methods and procedures of software and hardware of solar photovoltaic system

The design of photovoltaic systems requires knowledge of a wide range of critical information, as well as economic analysis. When designing a photovoltaic system, there are three steps to take into consideration: inspection, calculation, and design. The inspection involves gathering detailed information about the installation site such as geographic location, weather data. Moreover, on-site conditions, load, and user requirements. It is possible to swap the first and second steps.

When creating the software, it is vital to consider the performance requirements as well as a suitable level of the economy; the fourth phase is system installation and connection; and the fifth step is monitoring, assessment, and optimization of the system’s functioning once it has been designed.

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